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JyvГ¤skylГ¤ Finland Best Dining in Jyvaskyla, Central Finland: See 4, Tripadvisor traveler reviews of Jyvaskyla restaurants and search by cuisine, price, location, and more. In Finland the weather can vary greatly during one day, first sunshine, then rain. Rapid changes in the weather are a characteristic feature from one day to the next. In the winter troughs of low pressure that have formed over the North Atlantic bring mild, cloudy and wet weather on southerly and southwesterly winds. Jyväskylä (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈjyʋæsˌkylæ]; Latin: Granivicus) is a city and municipality in Finland in the western part of the Finnish theartrebellion.com is located about km north-east from Tampere, the third largest city in Finland; and about km north from Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Jyvaskyla Tourism: Tripadvisor has 8, reviews of Jyvaskyla Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Jyvaskyla resource. Currently: 32 °F. Light snow. Mostly cloudy. (Weather station: Jyvaskyla Airport, Finland). See more current weather ×. Jyvaskyla Art Museum. Siilinjärvi 21, In the early 20th century, the town expanded several times. Read more. Photo: Online Spiele Autorennen Characters Ltd. Search from website:. And beneath it all lies that most valuable of Finnish cultural treasures: Doubles Online Game and quiet. See also: Telecommunications in Finland and List of newspapers Vegascasino Finland. Taxation of resident individuals: Gross income. Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition; Finland has been often called the "Promised Land of Heavy Metal", because there are more than 50 metal Bands for everyinhabitants — more than any other nation in the world. JyvГ¤skylГ¤ Finland in Espoo. Finland at Wikipedia's sister projects. Familjen i Helsingfors. Moving House. Outokumpu is known for developing the flash smelting process for copper production and stainless Entropay Uk. When Norwegen Spanien child is born in Finland. Archived from the original on 6 September Moving to Raahe.

Here, you can cleanse body and soul by sweating away stress and impurities, emerging revitalised from the soothing hot steam. There are city versions for apartment dwellers and hotel guests, but a lakeside or seaside sauna flanked by Finnish forest offers the best experience of all.

Developed by Maiju Gebhard for the Finnish Association of Work Efficiency in the mids to eliminate manual drying of dishes, the dish-drying cupboard makes sense on so many practical levels.

Trademarked in and on the cutting edge ever since, Fiskars scissors have registered sales of more than one billion to date. Marking its 80th anniversary in , the three-legged modern classic has been copied endlessly since its debut.

In , there were 2,, households of average size 2. Forty percent of households consisted of single person, 32 percent two and 28 percent three or more.

There were 1. The average residential property without land cost 1, euro per square metre and residential land on 8. Consumer energy prices were euro cent per kilowatt hour.

There were 2. The average total household consumption was 20, euro, out of which housing at around euro, transport at around euro, food and beverages excluding alcoholic at around euro, recreation and culture at around euro.

Upper-level white-collar households , consumed an average 27, euro, lower-level white-collar households , 20, euro, and blue-collar households , 19, euro.

The unemployment rate was The labor administration funds labour market training for unemployed job seekers, the training for unemployed job seeker can last up to 6 months, which is often vocational.

The aim of the training is to improve the channels of finding employment. The American economist and The New York Times columnist Paul Krugman has suggested that the short term costs of euro membership to the Finnish economy outweigh the large gains caused by greater integration with the European economy.

Krugman notes that Sweden, which has yet to join the single currency, had similar rates of growth compared to Finland for the period since the introduction of the euro.

Membership of the euro protects Finland from currency fluctuations, which is particularly important for small member states of the European Union like Finland that are highly integrated into the larger European economy.

In fact, business leaders in Sweden, which is obliged to join the euro when its economy has converged with the eurozone, are almost universal in their support for joining the euro.

Although Sweden's currency is not officially pegged to the euro like Denmark's currency the Swedish government maintains an unofficial peg.

Maintaining this balance has allowed the Swedish government to borrow on the international financial markets at record low interest rates and allowed the Swedish central bank to quantitatively ease into a fundamentally sound economy.

This has led Sweden's economy to prosper at the expense of less sound economies who have been impacted by the financial crisis.

Sweden's economic performance has therefore been slightly better than Finland's since the financial crisis of Much of this disparity has, however, been due to the economic dominance of Nokia , Finland's largest company and Finland's only major multinational.

Nokia supported and greatly benefited from the euro and the European single market, particularly from a common European digital mobile phone standard GSM , but it failed to adapt when the market shifted to mobile computing.

One reason for the popularity of the euro in Finland is the memory of a 'great depression' which began in , with Finland not regaining it competitiveness until approximately a decade later when Finland joined the single currency.

Some American economists like Paul Krugman claim not to understand the benefits of a single currency and allege that poor economic performance is the result of membership of the single currency.

These economists do not, however, advocate separate currencies for the states of the United States, many of which have quite disparate economies.

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. This is due largely to Finland's less hospitable climate and the fact that the Finnish language shares roots with none of the major world languages, making it more challenging than average for most to learn.

The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products. As an economic environment, Finland's judiciary is efficient and effective.

Finland is highly open to investment and free trade. Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas, although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market.

Finland is ranked 16th ninth in Europe in the Index of Economic Freedom. While the manufacturing sector is thriving, OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements.

Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. According to OECD, only four EU countries have less regulated product markets UK, Ireland, Denmark and Sweden and only one has less regulated financial markets Denmark.

Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalising energy, postal, and other markets in Europe. Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honored.

Finland is rated 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. It indicates exceptional ease to trade across borders 5th , enforce contracts 7th , and close a business 5th , and exceptional hardship to employ workers th and pay taxes 83rd.

According to the OECD, Finland's job market is the least flexible of the Nordic countries. In contrast, during the s, Denmark liberalised its job market, Sweden moved to more decentralised contracts, whereas Finnish trade unions blocked many reforms.

Many professions have legally recognized industry-wide contracts that lay down common terms of employment including seniority levels, holiday entitlements, and salary levels, usually as part of a Comprehensive Income Policy Agreement.

Tax is collected mainly from municipal income tax, state income tax, state value added tax, customs fees, corporate taxes and special taxes.

There are also property taxes, but municipal income tax pays most of municipal expenses. Taxation is conducted by a state agency, Verohallitus, which collects income taxes from each paycheck, and then pays the difference between tax liability and taxes paid as tax rebate or collects as tax arrears afterward.

The state income tax is a progressive tax; low-income individuals do not necessarily pay any. The state transfers some of its income as state support to municipalities, particularly the poorer ones.

Additionally, the state churches - Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church and Finnish Orthodox Church - are integrated to the taxation system in order to tax their members.

Property taxes are low, but there is a transfer tax 1. For instance, McKinsey estimates that a worker has to pay around euro for another's euro service [81] - restricting service supply and demand - though some taxation is avoided in the black market and self-service culture.

State and municipal politicians have struggled to cut their consumption, which is very high at Interior design shops, fashion boutiques, jewellers, antique shops, galleries, museums, restaurants, hotels, design agencies - everything can be found in the Helsinki Design District.

Finnish art, design and architecture Art, design and architecture from Finland are making waves internationally. Did we mention Finland is truly a land of contrasts?

Cultural Landscapes and Natural Attractions Read more. Olav Waterway Read more. What are the Finns like?

Read article. Young Lions claim bronze at u20 World Championships The Finnish men's u20 ice hockey team have defeated Russia at the World Championships in Canada Morning headlines: Tuesday 5th January January 5, Hospital districts: slow pace of vaccinations depends on availability The slow pace of vaccinations in Finland, criticised by some opposition politicians and other public figures, Morning headlines: Monday 4th January Domestic January 4, Less than a third of cost support applications for businesses approved The second round of applications for financial support from businesses whose incomes have been Morning headlines: Tuesday 22nd December Domestic December 22, Government to approve vaccines decree, as first batch arrives Government ministers are set to meet in a special session on Tuesday to approve a decree Finland International.

Across Our Region: Top stories from the last seven days December 13, If you're a regular News Now Finland reader then hopefully you're well-versed in all the news that's happening here at home Across Our Region: Top stories from the last seven days December 6, Finland to slash Afghanistan troop deployment Finland International December 3, The Finnish Defence Forces says its cutting the number of troops deployed to Afghanistan, with two-thirds set to come home.

There are currently 60 Finnish Across Our Region: Top stories from the last seven days Finland International November 29, Mitchell European Historical Statistics, Columbia U.

Nokia: the inside story. Coleman The history of Finland. Historical dictionary of Lutheranism. Historical Dictionary of the Music and Musicians of Finland.

American-Scandinavian Review. Thaden Russification in the Baltic Provinces and Finland. Constitutionalist insurgency in Finland: Finnish "passive resistance" against Russification as a case of nonmilitary struggle in the European resistance tradition.

Imperial Borderland: Bobrikov and the Attempted Russification of Finland, — In Time of Storm: Revolution, Civil War and the Ethnolinguistic Issue in Finland.

HIA Book Collection. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Canadian Journal of Political Science. Scandinavian Economic History Review.

Wuorinen september Finansiering av studier. Utländska studerande i Finland. Utländska examina i Finland. Visa mer Hälsa. Barns hälsa. Mental hälsa.

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Tjänster för handikappade. Ekonomiskt stöd för handikappade. Ett handikappat barn. Visa mer Familj. Visa mer Vad är en familj? Familjer med en förälder.

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Visa mer Ekonomiskt stöd till familjer. Stöd till gravida. Stöd efter barnets födelse. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in Fennoscandia and the Baltic region.

In , as a result of the Finnish War , Finland was annexed by the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland , during which Finnish art flourished and the idea of independence began to take hold.

In , Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote , and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

In , the fledgling state was divided by the Finnish Civil War. During World War II , Finland fought the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War , and Nazi Germany in the Lapland War.

After the wars, Finland lost part of its territory, but maintained its independence. Finland largely remained an agrarian country until the s.

After World War II, the country rapidly industrialised and developed an advanced economy, while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model , resulting in widespread prosperity and a high per capita income.

Finland joined the OECD in , the NATO Partnership for Peace in , [17] the European Union in , the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in , [17] and the Eurozone at its inception in Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance , including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.

The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti U The third was found in Gotland.

It has the inscription finlandi G and dates back to the 13th century. It has been suggested that the Finnish word Suomi is first attested the Royal Frankish Annals annal for , which mentions a person called Suomi among the Danish delegation at a peace treaty with the Franks.

In the earliest historical sources, from the 12th and 13th centuries, the term Finland refers to the coastal region around Turku from Perniö to Uusikaupunki.

This region later became known as Finland Proper in distinction from the country name Finland.

Finland became a common name for the whole country in a centuries-long process that started when the Catholic Church established a missionary diocese in Nousiainen in the northern part of the province of Suomi possibly sometime in the 12th century.

The devastation of Finland during the Great Northern War — and during the Russo-Swedish War — caused Sweden to begin carrying out major efforts to defend its eastern half from Russia.

These 18th-century experiences created a sense of a shared destiny that when put in conjunction with the unique Finnish language, led to the adoption of an expanded concept of Finland.

If the archeological finds from Wolf Cave are the result of Neanderthals' activities, the first people inhabited Finland approximately ,—, years ago.

The artifacts the first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia , Russia, and Norway.

In the Bronze Age permanent all-year-round cultivation and animal husbandry spread, but the cold climate phase slowed the change. Seima-Turbino-phenomenon brought first bronze artifacts to the region and possibly also the Finno-Ugric-Languages.

Domestic manufacture of bronze artifacts started BC with Maaninka-type bronze axes. Bronze was imported from Volga region and from Southern Scandinavia.

In the Iron Age population grew especially in Häme and Savo regions. Finland proper was the most densely populated area. Cultural contacts to the Baltics and Scandinavia became more frequent.

Commercial contacts in the Baltic Sea region grew and extended during the 8th and 9th centuries. Main exports from Finland were furs, slaves, castoreum , and falcons to European courts.

Imports included silk and other fabrics, jewelry, Ulfberht swords , and, in lesser extent, glass. Production of iron started approximately in BC.

At the end of the 9th century, indigenous artifact culture, especially women's jewelry and weapons, had more common local features than ever before.

This has been interpreted to be expressing common Finnish identity which was born from an image of common origin. An early form of Finnic languages spread to the Baltic Sea region approximately BC with the Seima-Turbino-phenomenon.

Common Finnic language was spoken around Gulf of Finland years ago. The dialects from which the modern-day Finnish language was developed came into existence during the Iron Age.

The Sami cultural identity and the Sami language have survived in Lapland, the northernmost province, but the Sami have been displaced or assimilated elsewhere.

The 12th and 13th centuries were a violent time in the northern Baltic Sea. The Livonian Crusade was ongoing and the Finnish tribes such as the Tavastians and Karelians were in frequent conflicts with Novgorod and with each other.

Also, during the 12th and 13th centuries several crusades from the Catholic realms of the Baltic Sea area were made against the Finnish tribes.

According to historical sources, Danes waged at least three crusades to Finland, in or slightly earlier, [47] in and in , [48] and Swedes , possibly the so-called second crusade to Finland , in against Tavastians and the third crusade to Finland in against the Karelians.

The so-called first crusade to Finland , possibly in , is most likely an unreal event. Also, it is possible that Germans made violent conversion of Finnish pagans in the 13th century.

As a result of the crusades and the colonisation of some Finnish coastal areas with Christian Swedish population during the Middle Ages, [51] including the old capital Turku , Finland gradually became part of the kingdom of Sweden and the sphere of influence of the Catholic Church.

Due to the Swedish conquest, the Finnish upper class lost its position and lands to the new Swedish and German nobility and to the Catholic Church.

Swedish kings visited Finland rarely and in Swedish contemporary texts Finns were portrayed to be primitive and their language inferior.

Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration, and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry , clergy, and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.

During the Protestant Reformation , the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish, and Finland's current capital city, Helsinki , was founded by Gustav I of Sweden.

The Finns reaped a reputation in the Thirty Years' War — as a well-trained cavalrymen called " Hakkapeliitta ", that division excelled in sudden and savage attacks, raiding and reconnaissance , which King Gustavus Adolphus took advantage of in his significant battles, like in the Battle of Breitenfeld and the Battle of Rain In the 18th century, wars between Sweden and Russia twice led to the occupation of Finland by Russian forces, times known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath — and the Lesser Wrath — Two Russo-Swedish wars in twenty-five years served as reminders to the Finnish people of the precarious position between Sweden and Russia.

An increasingly vocal elite in Finland soon determined that Finnish ties with Sweden were becoming too costly, and following Russo-Swedish War — , the Finnish elite's desire to break with Sweden only heightened.

Even before the war there were conspiring politicians, among them Col G. Sprengtporten , who had supported Gustav III's coup in Sprengporten fell out with the king and resigned his commission in In the following decade he tried to secure Russian support for an autonomous Finland, and later became an adviser to Catherine II.

Notwithstanding the efforts of Finland's elite and nobility to break ties with Sweden, there was no genuine independence movement in Finland until the early 20th century.

As a matter of fact, at this time the Finnish peasantry was outraged by the actions of their elite and almost exclusively supported Gustav's actions against the conspirators.

The High Court of Turku condemned Sprengtporten as a traitor c. On 29 March , having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War , Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire with the recognition given at the Diet held in Porvoo , until the end of In , Alexander I incorporated the Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland.

During the Russian era, the Finnish language began to gain recognition. From the s onwards, a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennoman movement grew, and one of its most prominent leading figures of the movement was the philosopher J.

Snellman , who was strictly inclined to Hegel's idealism , and who pushed for the stabilization of the status of the Finnish language and its own currency, the Finnish markka , in the Grand Duchy of Finland.

The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations, and investment rose in following decades. Economic and political development was rapid.

In , universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. However, the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy.

For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament.

Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical liberals [66] and socialists. The case is known as the " Russification of Finland ", driven by the last tsar of Russian Empire, Nicholas II.

After the February Revolution , the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned, mainly by Social Democrats.

Since the head of state was the tsar of Russia, it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. The Parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Act to give the highest authority to the Parliament.

This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government which decided to dissolve the Parliament. New elections were conducted, in which right-wing parties won with a slim majority.

Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament and thus the ensuing elections were extralegal.

The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right-wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized.

The October Revolution in Russia changed the geopolitical situation anew. Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia.

Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Act of a few months earlier, the right-wing government, led by Prime Minister P.

Svinhufvud , presented Declaration of Independence on 4 December , which was officially approved two days later by Finnish Parliament , on 6 December Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic RSFSR , led by Vladimir Lenin , recognized independence on 4 January On 27 January , the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events.

The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaa , and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war.

The Whites , who were supported by Imperial Germany , prevailed over the Reds , [70] which were guided by Kullervo Manner 's desire to make young independent country a Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic also known as "Red Finland" and thus part of RSFSR.

Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond; still, even nowadays, the civil war is an inherently sensitive, emotional topic.

At that time, the idea of Greater Finland was also properly on display for the first time. After a brief experimentation with monarchy , when an attempt to made Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse a king for Finland proved to be a poor success, Finland became a presidential republic, with K.

Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.

Army officers were trained in France, and relations with Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened.

In , the population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.

Finland fought the Soviet Union in the Winter War of — after the Soviet Union attacked Finland and in the Continuation War of —, following Operation Barbarossa , when Finland aligned with Germany following Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union.

For days, the German army, aided indirectly by Finnish forces, besieged Leningrad , the USSR's second-largest city.

This was followed by the Lapland War of —, when Finland fought retreating German forces in northern Finland.

Perhaps the most famous war heroes during the aforementioned wars were Simo Häyhä , [80] [81] Aarne Juutilainen , [82] and Lauri Törni.

The treaties signed in and with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions in addition to those in the Moscow Peace Treaty of Almost the whole population, some , people , fled these areas.

The former Finnish territory now constitutes part of Russia's Republic of Karelia. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and it retained its independence, but at a loss of about 97, soldiers.

Finland rejected Marshall aid , in apparent deference to Soviet desires. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the Social Democratic Party, in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.

Valmet was founded to create materials for war reparations. After the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.

The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank , the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

Officially claiming to be neutral , Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. The YYA Treaty Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics.

This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from on, which was crucial for his continued popularity.

In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet.

This phenomenon was given the name " Finlandization " by the West German press. During the Cold War , Finland also developed into one of the centers of the East-West espionage , in which both the KGB and the CIA played their parts.

Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland maintained a market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.

Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th-highest in the world. In the s and '80s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world.

Finland negotiated with the European Economic Community EEC, a predecessor of the European Union a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from , although Finland did not fully join.

In , President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years. Finland reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but swiftly began increasing integration with the West.

On 21 September , Finland unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.

Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis , the collapse of its largest trading partner the Soviet Union , and a global economic downturn caused a deep early s recession in Finland.

The depression bottomed out in , and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. Financial and product market regulation were loosened.

Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. The Finnish Lakeland is the area with the most lakes in the country; many of the major cities in the area, most notably Tampere , Jyväskylä and Kuopio , are located in the immediate vicinity of the large lakes.

Much of the geography of Finland is a result of the Ice Age. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared with the rest of Europe.

Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers.

These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand, running northwest to southeast, where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay.

Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers, terrain in Finland is rising due to the post-glacial rebound.

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